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Sensor webs consisting of nodes with limited battery power and wireless communications are deployed to collect useful information from the field. Gathering sensed information in an energy efficient manner is critical to operate the sensor network for a long period of time. A data collection problem is defined where, in a round of communication, each sensor node has a packet to be sent to the distant base station. If each node transmits its sensed data directly to the base station then it will deplete its power quickly. Since wireless communications consume significant amounts of battery power, sensor nodes should spend as little energy as possible receiving and transmitting data. It is necessary for communication protocols to maximize nodes' lifetimes, reduce bandwidth consumption by using local collaboration among the nodes, and tolerate node failures. Most of the work in energy efficient data gathering application is motivated by LEACH by allowing rotation of cluster head for load distribution. We have presented several existing methods for energy efficient cluster head selection in wireless sensor network. Our goal is to reducing the amount of cluster head selection and replacement cost and ultimately to extend the lifetime of the entire networks compared with the existing clustering protocols.
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