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Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a recent addition to the solid state joining processes that has paved way for joining materials that were considered difficult to be welded by conventional welding techniques. In this process, a cylindrical non-consumable tool, with a profiled probe (pin) rotating about its own axis is slowly plunged into the abrutting edges of work pieces rigidly clamped to a backing plate. When the shoulder of the tool touches work piece surface, the tool is translated (with an axial force) along the length of the joint forming the joint in the solid state. Many specific properties of aluminium alloys including light weight and good structural strength enable them to be applied for structural parts. The demand of aircraft and automotive industries for light weight materials is met by aluminium alloys. The aluminium alloys AA6XXX and AA5XXX are extensively used in the fabrication of aircraft structures and other structural applications. The Conventional fusion welding of aluminium alloys leads to the melting and resolidification of the fusion zone which results in the formation of brittle interdendritic structure and eutectic phases. The formation of brittle structure in the weld zone leads to the drastic decrease in the mechanical properties like lower hardness, strength and ductility. Submerged friction stir welding consumes less energy. It provides improved mechanical properties.In experimental part, the effect of different welding parameters rotational speed, welding speed, axial force, welding medium on thermal histories, tensile properties and micro structural properties are studied.
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