Factors Affecting the Infiltration Rate of Stormwater (Case Study: Three Large Stormwater Infiltration Basins in the Gaza Strip)

Main Article Content

Zakaria Helles
Yunes Mogheir


Surface runoff from rainfall is an important source of fresh water and when properly utilized, is considered to be of major importance to the Gaza coastal aquifer. The artificial infiltration systems are the most important and renowned groundwater recharging and replenishing methods practiced in the Gaza Strip a few years ago. The main objective of this study is to investigate the critical factors affecting the infiltration rate in three large infiltration basins (Waqf, Asadaqa, and Alamal) existing in the Gaza Strip and apply different infiltration techniques. The study of the three basins was conducted in the two rainy seasons; 2017-2018 and 2021-2022, during which water depth readings were collected and compared.

The effect of both water depth and suspended particles on the infiltration rate was studied and compared between the two rainy seasons for the three infiltration basins. The results revealed that an increase in water depth of stormwater in the infiltration basin leads to an increase in infiltration rate in a power function relationship over time. This relation was linearly proportional at the earlier stages of infiltration, but after a while, the infiltration rate became less than linear or stopped increasing as water depth increased. The effect of clogging was also investigated as part of this study and the results showed that the progressive accumulation of sediment and suspended particles entering the basin with the inflowing stormwater significantly reduced the infiltration rate in the three basins over time. The sediment composition at Waqf basin was analyzed at the mid and end of the 2021-2022 rainy season, which resulted in the amount of silt and clay (dominant clogging material) increasing from zone 1 to zone 4. At zone 4, silt and clay accounted for 27%. and 22.5% (at mid-season), 30.8%, and 23.3% (at end-season) of the sediment, respectively.

The results also showed that the sediment thickness at Waqf Basin increased from zone 1 to zone 4 owing to that the 18 drill boreholes (drywells) functioned as water drainage points seeping the collected stormwater into the underlying soil layers.

As a recommendation for future developmental works at Waqf basin, a new series of drilled boreholes should be added in zone 3 in addition to installing a geotextile mesh membrane as a vertical separation filter wall between different zones to reduce turbidity and suspended solids and protect the infiltration basin from clogging tendency.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...

Article Details

How to Cite
Helles, Z., and Y. Mogheir. “Factors Affecting the Infiltration Rate of Stormwater (Case Study: Three Large Stormwater Infiltration Basins in the Gaza Strip)”. Technix International Journal for Engineering Research, vol. 9, no. 8, Aug. 2022, pp. 72-85, https://tijer.org/index.php/tijer/article/view/308.
Research Articles


Helles, Z., and Y., Mogheir, 2022. Assessment of the Efficiency of Artificial Stormwater Infiltration Tech-niques (Case Study: Three Large Stormwater Infil-tration Basins in Gaza Strip), Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, Islamic University of Ga-za, Gaza, Palestine. (under the process of publica-tion).

Bouwer, H., 1999. Artificial recharge of groundwater: systems, design, and management, CH. 24, Hydraulic Design Handbook, L. W. Mayes, ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, 1999.

Abu Shammala J., 2020. Assessment of Stormwater Infiltration Basins in Gaza Strip, Case Study: Asa-daqa basin-Asqual basin-Alamal basin. MSC Thesis. Palestine: Islamic University Gaza.

Kostiakov, A. N., 1932. On the Dynamics of the Coef-ficients of Water Percolation in Soils and the Neces-sity of Studying it from a Dynamic Point of View for Purposes of Amelioration. Trans. Corn. Int. Soc. Soil. Sci., 6th Moscow, Part A (1932),17-22.

Horton, R.E., 1933. The Role of Infiltration in the Hydrologic Cycle. Trans. Am. Geophysical Union, 14 (1933), 446-460.

Horton, R.E., 1939. An Approach Toward Physical Interpretation of Infiltration Capacity. Proc. Soil Sci-ences Soc. Am., 5 (1939), 399-417.

Philip, J.R.,1957. The Theory of Infiltration. 1. The Infiltration Equation and Its Solution. Soil Science, 83, No. 5 (1957),345-357.

Green, W.H. and Ampt, G.A., 1911. Studies on Soil Physics. 1. The Flow of Air and Water Through Soils." Journal of Agricultural Science, 4 (1911),1-24.

Fok, Y.S., 1987. Evolution of Algebraic Infiltration Equations. Proc. of the Int. Conf. on Infiltration De-velopment and Application, Univ. of Hawaii, Jan. 6-9 (1987).

Bouwer, H., 1978. Groundwater hydrology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, N.Y.

Eric, L.J., 1962. Evaluation of infiltration measure-ments. Trans. Am. Soc. Agric. Eng., 5: 11-13.

Schiff, L., 1953. The effect of surface head on infil-tration rates based on the performance of ring infil-trometers and ponds. Trans. Am. Geophys. Univ., 34: 257-266.

Aronovici, V.S., 1955. Model study of ring infiltrom-eter performance under low initial soil moisture. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc., 19: 1-6.

Philip, J.R., 1958. The theory of infiltration: 6. Effect of water depth over soil. Soil Sci., 85: 278-286. Di-rect Link.

Bouwer, H., and Rice, R. C., 1989. Effect of water depth in groundwater recharge basins. / . Irrig. and Drain., ASCE, 115(4), 556-567.

G. L. Feng, J. Letey, and L. Wu. 2001.Water Ponding Depths Affect Temporal Infiltration Rates in a Water-Repellent Sand. Soil and Water Science Unit, Univ. of California, Riverside, CA92521.

Magali D., Sylvie B., and Jean-Pascal B., 2002. Per-formance of stormwater infiltration basins on the long term. URGC Hydrologie Urbaine, INSA Lyon, Batiment Coulomb, 34 avenue des Arts, 69621.

Nadee S., Trelo-ges V., Pavelic P., Srisuk K., 2010. A Case Study from Ban Nong Na, Phitsanulok, Thai-land. Environment and Natural Resources J. Vol 10, No.1, June 2012: 68-77.

Bouwer H., 2002. Artificial recharge of groundwater: hydrogeology and engineering, Hydrogeology Jour-nal (2002) 10:121–142.

Pavelic, P., Dillon, P.J., Barry, K.E., Herczeg, A.L., Rattray, K.J., Hekmeijer, P., Gerges, N.Z., 1998. Well clogging effects determined from mass balances and hydraulic response at a stormwater ASR site. Artifi-cial Recharge of Ground Water, Balkema, Rotterdam.

Rinck-Pfeiffer, S., Ragusa, S., Sztajnbok, P., Vandevelde, T., 2000. Interrelationships between bi-ological, chemical, and physical processes as an ana-log to clogging in aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) wells. Water Res. 34 (7), 2110–2118.

Coastal Municipalities Water Utility (CMWU), 2014. Consultancy Service for The Detail Design of Reten-tion and Infiltration Basin in Al-Amal Area at Khan Younis Governorate, Gaza Strip, Palestine.